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  • 12/18/2011

A – Z of Iranian History



Tajiks: Predominantly Persian speaking, they live in Central Asia, in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and some in Pakistan. Culturally, they are closely related to Iran. Most are Sunni Muslims.


Taleshi: This dialect belongs to the northwestern branch of the Iranian dialects. It is spoken in the Talesh region of Gilan and in the some parts of Azerbaijan.


Tamerlane: The Turkmen conqueror, he established an empire extending from India to the Mediterranean Sea (1336-1405). His name, a European corruption of Timur Lang ("Timur the Lame") was given to him because his left leg was partially disabled.


Tekke: A Turkmen group living mainly in Iran. From Oghuz origin, they are closely related to another major Turkmen group, Salours. They converted to Sunni Islam during the Saljuq period and emerged as significant forces in the 16th century. Their rugs are famous.


Tobacco concession: In 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted the concession to Major Talbot, an English citizen. This gave him monopoly on production, domestic and foreign sales of all tobacco in Iran. It was cancelled in 1892. The Iranian government was forced to pay heavy penalty after the cancellation.


The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC): On April 27, 1951, Dr. Musaddiq presented the parliament with a 9 point legislation prepared by a special oil committee. The new legislation was approved on April 29 and NIOC was formed with a three member provisional board of directors. Its formation created a significant international crisis.


Tranoxiana: Regions north of the river Oxus (modern Amu Darya), present day

Uzbekistan. It included the two cities of Bukhara and Samarqand, two very important medieval cities.

Transcaspia: An area of steppes and deserts that corresponds to the modern Turkmenistan in southern Russia.


Transcaucasia: a region extending from the Greater Caucasus to the Turkish and Iranian borders. It includes the Republics of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan amongst other places.


Tudeh Party: The Soviet backed party was formed in 1941 and replaced the banned Communist Party of Iran. The party attracted many charismatic intellectuals. It’s first chairman was a Qajar aristocrat. Most of the time it was underground and survived until the Islamic revolution.


Turkistan:  Territory presently stretching from the Caspian Sea to the river Amu-Darya (Uzbek-Afghan border) and inhabited by a number of Turkic peoples. Conquered by many groups, the country became independent in 1990. The Persian influence was the longest and remained till the Mongol expansion in 13th century.


Turkmanchi Treaty:  The treaty was signed in 1828 between Iran and Russia after the defeat of Iranians. The Iranians lost all territory east of the Caspian including Erivan and Nakhchivan to the Russians.


Turkmen: From Oghuz origin, they started arriving in Iran since 8th century. There are close to two million Turkmen in Iran. They inhabit the area along the northern border of Iran close to modern Turkmenistan. Their language in Turkic in origin and they speak a number of dialects.


Turkmen Sahra: An area in the ancient province of Gorgan (modern Golistan) in the Caspian region in northern Iran. A Turkmen stronghold, the area is very fertile and has been home to many Turkmen tribes for centuries.

Other Links:

Haft Keshvar (7 Countries)-part 1    

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 1   

Iran, a Brief History (part 1)    

A – Z of Iran History (A)   

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 2   

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