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  • Date :
  • 12/14/2011

A – Z of Iranian History

"N" & "O"


Nasir ad-Din Shah (1831-1896): He started his reign in 1948 and almost bankrupted the treasury and the court with his expensive trips to Europe and luxurious life style. His autocratic rule resulted in his assassination in 1896.


Nestorianism: Followers of Nestorius the patriarch of Constantinople in 5th century.  Nestorians believed in the doctrine of the two natures of Christ (human and divine), faced persecution, and their bishops fled to Iran. From 488 the Persian Church adopted Nestorianism.


Nowruz (New Year): The Iranian New Year is a celebration of spring equinox and has been celebrated since Achaemenid times from around 500 BC. It has been influenced by ancient Mesopotamian festivals amongst others. Its current form is closely related to the New Year celebrations during the Sasanian period, 7th century AD. It is the most important national festival in Iran.


Oghuz Turks: One of the major branches of Turkish tribes migrating south into Persia from 10th century. The followers of one of their leaders, Saljuq, became known as Saljuq Turks and ruled many territories including Iran.


Old Iranian: A sub-group of Indo-European languages which spread across the Iranian plateau 1350-350 BC. Of these languages, Avestan and Old Persian are textually preserved. Others such as Median, Parthian, Sogdian, Carduchi and Scythian are known from Greek sources.


Old Persian: Old Persian was spoken in southwestern Iran, was contemporary to Avestan spoken in northeast. The oldest traces of Old Persian date to the 6th century BC, but it was spoken until the 3rd century BC, and is preserved in cuneiform tablets from Achaemenid dynasty.


OPEC: The Organization of petroleum Producing Countries was created at the Baghdad Conference in 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. More members joined in later. It has the objective to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries.


Ottoman Empire (1350-1918): Following the breakdown of the Saljuq Empire many small Turkish states were formed including the Ottomans. Soon they absorbed all the neighboring states. In 1453 they captured Constantinople (Istanbul) and ended Byzantium Empire.

Other Links:

Haft Keshvar (7 Countries)-part 1    

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 1   

Iran, a Brief History (part 1)    

A – Z of Iran History (A)   

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 2   

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