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  • 12/14/2011

A – Z of Iranian History

"H" & "I"


Hawraman: A Kurdish group speaking Zaza/Gurani language. They live both in Iran (West Kurdistan) and Iraq. They are mostly Ahl-i Haqqi and some are Sunni. In 1996, their population is reported to be close to 80,000. Half live in Iran.


Hazara: The group is mainly concentrated in Afghanistan, but a small group lives in Iran as well. They are assumed to be from Mongolia. Most moved from Tansoxiana in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. They are pastoral nomads, mainly Shiites and speak a dialect of Persian.


Hijrat: The term applies to Holy Prophet's (PBUH) departure into exile, from Mecca to Medina. The date this departure took place (622 AD), became the beginning of the Muslim lunar calendar.


Hurrians: Arriving from the highlands of Anatolia with their own language, they established themselves at the foothills of the Zagros region by 2400 BC. They created the kingdom of Mitanni.


Hyrcania (Hyrcana, Gorgan): Meaning the country of the wolves, present day Gorgan is located on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. With other Caspian kingdoms it became an Iranian stronghold during the Islamic period with many pro-Iranian dynasties resisting the Arab conquest for centuries.


Imam jom'eh:  A title assigned to the senior clergyman in charge of the Friday Prayers at the main mosque in each county. Formally appointed by the Qajar and Pahlavi kings, at times, they were too powerful and their appointment was only a formality and a sign of recognizing their prominence. They still exist and have become very involved in the politics of the country.


Imam Zaman (A.S): The twelfth Shi’i imam, who is hidden, and will appear towards the end of the time to save the world. Imam Zaman (the Time Lord), has the title Mahdi meaning, “divinely guided one”‌ and is expected to appear when the world is in its most corrupt state.


Irani Zoroastrians of India: Zoroastrians who immigrated to India in the eighteenth century from Iran. They have maintained their contact with the Iranian Zoroastrians.

Other Links:

Haft Keshvar (7 Countries)-part 1    

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 1   

Iran, a Brief History (part 1)    

A – Z of Iran History (A)   

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 2   

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