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  • 12/13/2011

A – Z of Iranian History



Gilaki: A northwestern Iranian dialect, Gilaki is spoken in the Caspian area, particularly Gilan. It is related to other dialects in the Caspian mainly, Mazandarani, Gorgani, and Taleshi. None is written and all are widespread in the region. .


Gillites: An Iranian group inhabiting modern province of Gilan. Like other groups in the Caspian region, they resisted Arabs and Turks for a long time. They are the ancestors of modern Gillaki people.


Georgia: It is located between the Black and Caspian Seas and borders Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey.  It declared independence in 1991 from the Soviet Union.


Ghilzai Afghans: A major tribe in Afghanistan. Their leader Mahmud Ghilzai attacked Iran in 1722 and ended the Safavid rule.


Guklan: A Turkmen tribe, originally from central Asia. They are Sunni and their language closely resembles other Oghuz related groups and is related to Azerbaijani, Crimean Tartar and Turkish. They live close to the border with Russian Turkmenistan.


Guardian Council: Composed of clergy, the group has the power to veto all legislation passed by the parliament. The council has 12 members, six are appointed by the supreme leader, and the rest is elected by the parliament, but they are nominated by the Supreme Judicial Council (clergy).


Gulistan treaty:  The treaty was signed between Russia and Iran in 1813. It ended the war of 1804. According to the treaty, Iranians lost many territories west of Caspian, including Georgia and parts of Azerbaijan in southern Russia.


Gurani: A Kurdish group who live in both Iraq and Iran. The name applies to both a group and a language related to Kurmanji. They are mentioned as the fourth largest Kurdish group in the 16th century. Gurani is closely related to Zaza, both languages are Northwestern Iranian in origin and both groups do not consider themselves to be Kurds. They are mainly Ahl i Haqqi.


Gypsies: The Iranian Gypsies are known as Koli and Luli. They originally migrated towards Europe from a region between India and Iran in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. They have been nomadic for centuries and were involved in making handicrafts such as baskets and sieve-making and some iron work. There are very few Gypsies in Iran and they are not recognized as a special group.

Other Links:

Haft Keshvar (7 Countries)-part 1    

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 1   

Iran, a Brief History (part 1)    

A – Z of Iran History (A)   

History of Ancient Medicine in Mesopotamia & Iran-part 2   

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